B/W Journal Cover

B/W Journal Cover
B/W Journal Cover

I found a piece of pieced fabric when I was rummaging through stuff recently. The piece was about the right size for a journal cover. Over the weekend, last weekend, I did a bunch of small projects. Making this journal cover was one of them.

I am not sure for what this piece of made fabric was intended. I hope I don’t come across a note saying I needed it for X project or Y quilt. C’est la vie.

SIL #2 observed that the fabric combination looked like an adult coloring book. It does, but a mad version!

B/W Journal Cover Open
B/W Journal Cover Open

The strips were relatively even and bordered with the jester’s diamond check. I had to cut most of the diamond check off to make the journal fit. As it was I cut off a bit too much and the fit is snug. Fortunately, with cotton, it will stretch a bit.

I was working on something else at the same time and had magenta thread in the machine. I thought it would be great to use for this, because the piece is so stark. I thought a little color would enhance the whole project.

B/W Journal Cover Open - thread nest
B/W Journal Cover Open – thread nest

What the bold color choice highlights is the big wad of thread that happened as I was trying to sew over several seams. Bleah. I unsnarled the thread nest at Craft Night. The journal cover is finished and will be ready when I finish the dot journal.

B/W Journal Cover - Open
B/W Journal Cover – Open

You can see a little bit of the tightness on the inside cover. Still, this journal cover, even with its ridgy bump on the front will be an interesting change from my current journal.

Quilt Class: Foundation Piecing pt.3

New York Compass
New York Compass

We are midway through the foundation piecing class making a New York compass block. This is a long tutorial, but there are a lot of steps and I want all of the parts to be clear.

This segment discusses more foundation piecing. In order to get to this point, you should have completed parts 1 and 2. All of the supplies are listed in Part 1

Remember our goal:

NY Compass Outline
NY Compass Outline

Next, we need to foundation piece the small strip called Section D.

Cut fabric
Cut fabric
4 Pieces of fabric
4 Pieces of fabric

Cut 4 pieces of fabric that coordinate with the fabrics of your block. The pieces should be about 2.5″x 1.75″, which is generous. You may be able to use scraps for these pieces.

Place fabric on pattern
Place fabric on pattern

As you did in Part 2, you will work on placing 2 fabrics on the line between D1 & D2 with about a quarter inch hanging over into D2 as a seam allowance. Note the printed part of the pattern (the lines on which you sew) are face down for this step.

Pin fabric
Pin fabric

I like to pin the first piece of fabric to my pattern. It helps keep the fabric from shifting as I work on the second piece of fabric. Note the printed part of the pattern (the lines on which you sew) are face up for this step.

Position 2d piece of fabric
Position 2d piece of fabric

Flip Section D back over and position the second piece of fabric over the first. I often hold the pieces up to the light (or use a lightbox) to position the second piece.

Ready to Sew
Ready to Sew

When you have both of your pieces placed like you like them, pin in place. I like to use thin pins. Your piece should now look like the above photo.

Sew on line
Sew on line
Sew on the line (#2)
Sew on the line (#2)

With the applique’ foot on your machine. Sew on the line between D1 & D2. Do not cross the perpendicular line at the top or bottom. Back stitch one stitch at the beginning and the end.

Section D sewn
Section D sewn

Once you have sewn on the line, your piece should look like the above photo.

Press first sewn pieces
Press first sewn pieces

Open up both pieces and make sure they cover D1 & D2. Once you are convinced that you have covered both D1 & D2 with your fabric and there is a 1/4″ seam allowance, press your piece. Press with the pattern on top. Note the pattern is face up and you can see the sewing lines. (Nota bene: if you have taped your pattern, use a press cloth so that you do not get melted tape on your iron)

Sewn, pressed Section D back
Sewn, pressed Section D back

Flip your Section D over again, so you are ready to trim.

Ready to trim
Ready to trim

Lay your pattern, with sewn fabric, pattern side up (fabric down) on your cutting mat. The inside part of the curve will be facing your body. You may want to flip Section D around if you are left handed.

Fold the longer piece of the pattern over to the left using the seam line as the fold line. This will expose the fabric that will be your seam allowance.

Place ruler on sewn line
Place ruler on sewn line

Line up your ruler’s 1/4″ mark on the seam/fold line and trim your seam allowance to 1/4″.

Trim
Trim
Trimmed
Trimmed

Trim seam allowance to 1/4″.

Ready to press pieces into place
Ready to press pieces into place

Go back to the ironing board and position your piece so the fabric is up, pattern side down and smooth the fabric towards D2, lightly finger pressing.

Press towards D2
Press towards D2
Press towards D2
Press towards D2

Take the piece to the iron and press carefully towards D2.

Place D3 fabric
Place D3 fabric

Place your next fabric with the longer part towards D2 and the future seam allowance closer to D3. Hold the whole piece up to the light to make sure your placement is correct.

Place D3 fabric in place
Place D3 fabric in place

Pin in place.

Get ready to sew on the line between D2 & D3.

Sewn D3
Sewn D3

Once sewn, your piece should look like the photo above.

Check to make sure fabric covers D3
Check to make sure fabric covers D3

Check to make sure your fabric covers pattern section D3. You do this by folding the fabric over and looking to see that you have about 1/4″ on all sides.

Pattern side up
Pattern side up

Now, get ready to trim. Put your piece on the cutting mat pattern side up.

Folder pattern back
Folder pattern back

Fold your pattern to the left again, like you did before.

Ready to trim
Ready to trim
Trimmed
Trimmed

Line up your ruler’s 1/4″ mark on the seam/fold line and trim your seam allowance to 1/4″.

Avoid the bump
Avoid the bump

See that bump in the photo above? You do not want that bump to show once you have pieced D4 on to the parts of Section D you have already pieced. Press again, this time towards D4. Avoid the bump by pressing!

Press towards D4
Press towards D4

Press towards D4. No ironing!

We are heading to the home stretch!

Position D5
Position D5

Position your last piece as you have done before. It is going to look at little weird and out of alignment, because you are working with a curve. Remember to position the fabric so it covers D5 plus 1/4″ seam allowance. Pay no attention to the edges of the other pieces, such as D4, that you have already sewn.

Check placement
Check placement

It is easier for me to see whether or not piece D5 was in the right position by pinning it. Note, I would pin it on the pattern side to sew, because then I can see where the pin is in relation to where my sewing machine foot and needle are. The pin in the photo is temporary.

Sewn D5
Sewn D5

Once you have the placement finalized, go ahead and sew.

Fold back pattern and prepare to trim seam allowance
Fold back pattern and prepare to trim seam allowance
Align ruler for 1/4" seam allowance
Align ruler for 1/4″ seam allowance

Now you have to fold back the pattern one last time and prepare to trim the seam allowance.

D5 trimmed!
D5 trimmed!

Trim!

Section D Complete!
Section D Complete!

Now your piece is done. Fold back the D5 fabric and press. Place your ruler on the lines at the end of the pattern and trim a 1/4″ seam allowance. I know you can do this without photos.

Now you have to trim the curved parts of Section D

Untrimmed Section D
Untrimmed Section D

It is too difficult to sew the untrimmed Section D, so you will have to trim.

Dots mark 1/4"
Dots mark 1/4″

To trim, mark 1/4″ away from the dark line. The dots in the photo above mark 1/4″. I have trimmed the straight ends with a rotary cutter and I am ready to play “dot to dot” with my scissors. I am going to cut from dot to dot to create a 1/4″ seam allowance.

Section D
Section D
Finished Section D
Finished Section D

On to part 4!

Tips:

  • If you have to rip out stitches, rip them out from the fabric side, not the paper side.
  • Pay attention to putting the next piece on the foundation.
  • Avoid the bump by pressing!

Resources:

Quilt Class: Foundation Piecing pt.2

New York Compass
New York Compass

We are learning foundation piecing (also called paper piecing) using a pattern called New York Compass. If you are just finding this tutorial, go to part 1 to see the supply list and learn how to prepare your pieces.

Cut rectangles for foundation piecing 2.5"
Cut rectangles for foundation piecing 2.5″

I am using an aqua with white dots for my background and a red with white dots for my foreground. You should have already cut your rectangles for both foreground and background at 2.5″x6″. If not, do it now, as you will need them almost immediately.

The sections of Section C are marked in the order in which you should piece them. Start with C1. Odd numbers are the background and even numbers indicate you should use the foreground (spikes) fabric.

You will be piecing from one side (C1) towards the middle to the other side, ending with C17.

  1. Set up your sewing machine with an applique’ foot or similar. You will not need your quarter inch foot for the foundation piecing part of the process.
  2. Shorten the stitch length. If you can’t shorten the stitch length, remember to backstitch at the beginning and end of each line of stitching.
  3. If you are a speed demon, and the option is available on your machine, slow down your machine a little bit. You will need to control the speed at the beginning and the end of the stitching lines.
  4. Place your Section C pattern face down on a flat surface.
  5. Lay Section C Face Down
    Lay Section C Face Down

    Cover piece C1 on the paper pattern with one of the background rectangles you cut in Part 1. Place the fabric in such a way to leave at least 1/4″ of fabric around each piece. You get extra bonus points if you line one long straight edge with the straight line at the end of the pattern.

  6. Now, hold the pattern and the foreground fabric in one hand (optionally you can clip them together with a WonderClip) and hold the whole piece up to the light (facing a window or a lamp or on a light box). Take note of where the line is between C1 and C2.
  7. Add second fabric
    Add second fabric

    Still holding your pieces up to the light, take one of your foreground rectangles and place one of its edges 1/4″ from the line between C1 and C2. This will be the seam allowance and that quarter inch should hang over the line into C2.

  8. Put all the pieces carefully back down on your table.
  9. Pin the two fabrics to the paper, keeping the pin well away from the line between C1 and C2. You want enough space so the pin doesn’t interfere with the foot on your sewing machine. I also like to pin parallel to the sewing line and within the seam allowance to so I can test to see if the fabric covers the other pieces. I like to pin on my cutting mat so I don’t damage the furniture.
  10. Fold the foreground piece back to make sure that it covers C2. You will fold it on the line between C1 and C2. That will be your sewing line. You can move the pins to the front for easier sewing.
  11. Flip the whole thing over
    Flip the whole thing over

    Flip the whole thing over and take a look.

  12. Once pinned, check again to make sure that you have at least 1/4″ all around C1 (background) and C2 (foreground).
  13. Take your piece to the sewing machine and sew on the line between C1 and C2. Do not go over. Only sew on that line.
  14. Stitched on line
    Stitched on line

    Back stitch at the beginning and the end. One backstitch is fine.

  15. Fold over to check coverage
    Fold over to check coverage

    Remove the piece from under the presser foot and fold your foreground over to check and make sure it covered C2. You might need to hold it up to the light.

    Why you need to trim
    Why you need to trim

    You can see the foreground fabric through the background, which is why you need to trim. Depending on the colors you use, this may not be the case, but you don’t want to build up so many layers that you cannot quilt through the piece.

  16. Take Section C back to your cutting mat and place it so the paper part of the pattern is on top.
  17. Fold the paper back
    Fold the paper back

    Fold the paper back on the seam line so the excess seam allowance is exposed. You are going to cut this off, so it is worthwhile to take a minute and make sure you are not cutting off the wrong part, eg the part you need to cover your background and spikes.

  18. Trim Excess Seam Allowance
    Trim Excess Seam Allowance

    Line up your ruler with the 1/4″ line on the seam line and trim the excess seam allowance.

  19. Press
    Press

    Take your piece to your ironing surface and place it with the paper down. Press towards the foreground, so you get rid of as much of the “bump'” from the seam as you can. Press towards the middle of your pattern. You want the foreground fabric to be as flat as you can get it. Pressing is very important. It is possible that there will be a bump when you put the next piece over the previous one, if you don’t press well.

  20. Your foreground piece should cover the line between C2 and C3 and give you a 1/4″ seam allowance.
  21. Once you have pressed the foreground flat, you are ready to put on the next background piece.
  22. Take one of your background rectangles and place one of its edges 1/4″ from the line between C2 and C3, smoothing (without stretching) the foreground piece you sewed, so it is as flat as possible. Again, this will be the seam allowance and that quarter inch should hang over the line into section C3. You may need to hold it up to the light again to position the piece correctly.
  23. Once you have the correct placement, pin in place.
  24. Once pinned, check again to make sure that you have at least 1/4″ all around C2 (background) .
  25. Sew on black line
    Sew on black line

    Take your piece to the sewing machine and sew on the line between C2 and C3. Do not sew beyond the end of that line. Only sew on that line.

  26. Repeat
    Repeat

    Repeat this process, alternating between foreground and background until you reach the other end of Section C. As you move down the pattern, your Section C will start to look like something you could put into a block.

  27. Trim Straight Edges
    Trim Straight Edges

    Use your rotary cutting kit to trim the straight edges of Section C.

  28. Trim with Sharp Scissors
    Trim with Sharp Scissors

    From the paper pattern side of Section C, I eyeball a 1/4″ and trim the curves with very sharp scissors. There are some serious layers here, so I am not fooling when I say sharp.

Finished Section C
Finished Section C

The finished Section C is a sight to behold. Even after making several of these sections, I amazed each time it turns out.

Tips:

  • If you have to rip out stitches, rip them out from the fabric side, not the paper side.
  • Pay attention to putting the next piece on the foundation.

Resources:

Part 3 is coming soon.

Quilt Class: Foundation Piecing pt.1

I hope you are enjoying this class! I am really appreciating the opportunity to update the tutorials. I hope to do more updating and keep making them better.

Today we are going to start another series of tutorials to learn foundation piecing. Foundation piecing is a technique where the pattern is printed on paper or fabric (the foundation) and the maker sews directly on to that foundation.

The block we will use is called New York Compass, a variation of the New York Beauty pattern. It is a little more complex than the patterns we have been working on, but I decided to throw caution to the wind and nudge you to step up. You have done curves, so I am confident you can sew this block.

New York Compass
New York Compass

In part 1, we will prep everything.

Supplies:

  • Notebook for notes
  • Pen to take notes 😉
  • Sewing Machine
  • applique’ foot (preferably one with a mark showing where the needle will stitch)
  • 1/4″ foot
  • thread
  • fabric
  • fabric scissors
  • paper scissors
  • foundation piecing paper like Toni’s Disappearing Paper or Carol Doak’s Foundation Paper – you can just use printer paper, but it might be harder to rip off. Tracing paper can work, too, but it is good to be able to send the paper through the printer
  • pins
  • Rotary cutter
  • rulers
  • template plastic
  • template plastic friendly pen (Bic works)
  • glue stick
  • iron and ironing surface
  • thin pressing cloth
  • New York Compass pattern
  • Optional: Wonderclips
  • Optional: Lightbox
  1. Pattern in 4 Pieces
    Pattern in 4 Pieces

    Print the pattern sheets (all 4). I only have 8.5″x11″ paper so the pattern comes out on 4 sheets. Use some kind of foundation piecing paper to print the pattern. Nota Bene: I keep a folder for all of my projects, so I like to print at least 2, if not 3 copies of the pattern. One I use to make the templates (yes, we will need a few templates), one I will tape together and keep whole (you can use regular copy paper for this one) and one I will use for the foundations.

  2. Tape pattern together
    Tape pattern together

    Trim off the margins and tape the parts together. Note, the tape will not play nicely with your iron when you press the foundation pieced parts so USE A PRESSING CLOTH. A scrap of fabric or ugly fabric work great. Guess how I found this out?

  3. NY Compass Templates
    NY Compass Templates

    Above is how the templates shake out: 3 regular plastic backed templates and two foundation templates.

  4. Cut Paper Pattern Apart
    Cut Paper Pattern Apart

    Cut the parts of the pattern apart. You will have 5 parts. Two of them will be foundation piecing patterns and 3 of will need to be made into regular templates with template plastic.

  5. NY Compass Sections
    NY Compass Sections
    NY Compass Outline
    NY Compass Outline

    I am going to refer to the skinny spikes piece as Section C. Section C is in the middle.

  6. Make your templates. You must add a quarter of inch to your paper templates (not the ones that will be foundation pieced. If you don’t know how to make templates with template plastic, refer to my tutorial on Machine Applique’ Part 1. Make sure you place the template on the wrong side of fabric when tracing. Set the templates aside
  7. Cut rectangles for foundation piecing 2.5"
    Cut rectangles for foundation piecing 2.5″

    Cut rectangles for foundation piecing 2.5″x 6.5″. This is a generous rectangle. You aren’t going to save any fabric with this technique and you should worry more about coming up short, because ripping out stitches when using this technique is a real pain.

  8. There is one tricky part about these templates. You will need to add a 1/4″ to the curve. The way you do that is to: A) glue the paper template to the largest piece of template plastic you have (you may have to piece the template plastic). B) Take your ruler and start at the left end of the paper template. Line the ruler’s 1/4″ mark up with the dark outline on the paper template (you should still have a rough cut paper template before you glue the paper to template plastic). C) Make a mark with a template plastic friendly pen at the 1/4″. D) Move your ruler slightly to the right and make another mark at the 1/4″ point. E) Follow the curved line of the paper part of the template with your ruler until you reach the far right side of the ruler. F) Cut along the dots you have made in as smooth a motion as you can using your paper scissors. You should now have a quarter inch seam allowance along your template. Repeat for all curved templates.
  9. Cut your fabrics. Nota Bene: When you cut the fabrics for Section C, cut rectangles for these spikes at 2.5″ wide.

  10. Check fabric strips
    Check fabric strips

    Check to make sure you have cut your rectangles large enough. Take your Section C and lay it face up. Cover the first section (labeled C1 on my pattern) to make sure your rectangle covers the entire section C1 plus 1/4″ seam allowance around all sides.

Part 2 will be posted soon so you can learn the actual foundation piecing.

Tips:

  • If you have to rip out stitches, rip them out from the fabric side, not the paper side.

Resources:

Quilt Class: Flower Basket pt.2

Flower Basket
Flower Basket

As mentioned in part 1, above is the current block in our Sampler Quilt Class. These directions are for machine sewing your Flower Basket and include a little applique’. The applique’ can be done by machine or hand.

Are you playing along? If you are just starting, below is the complete supply list. You won’t need everything for this step, but you will need to start with part 1 and that part requires more supplies.

Supply List

  • Flower Basket Directions & Templates
  • paper scissors (part 1)
  • mechanical pencil
  • thin Pigma pen (or similar) (part 1)
  • template plastic (part 1)
  • glue stick (part 1)
  • 2 (or more) foreground fabrics
  • 12.5″ x 12.5″ piece of background fabric, which you will cut in half
  • FQ of same background fabric
  • Rotary ruler, including a long one, such as Creative Grids 4.5″x 18.5″
  • Rotary cutter
  • Fabric scissors
  • thread
  • pins
  • Stiletto
  • Design wall or sandpaper board
  • sewing machine in good working order
  • Sharp or top stitch sewing machine needle

Optional

Important information:

  • Block is 12.5″ unfinished / 12″ finished
  • These directions use a quarter inch seam allowance. Check your seam allowance before you begin. If you don’t know how to do that, there are resources available, including one from Connecting Threads and Craftsy. Search the web for others if you don’t like these tutorials.
  • You will be directed to use the Triangle Technique. Make sure you have the chart as well as the instructions handy.
  • Respect the bias.

After working through part 1, you have already chosen your fabrics, made your templates and cut your pieces. You are ready to sew.

Sewing

Carefully stitch along the hypotenuse of the large background triangle, about 1/8″ from the edge, to stabilize it. This stitching will be covered up when you stitch the handle part of the block to the basket part of the block.

Triangle Technique

Use the Triangle Technique to make your half square triangles. Make sure you have the HST Size Chart available to confirm sizes. A brief overview is:

Draw an X from corner to corner diagonally on the wrong side of each of your 6.25″ x 6.25″ squares.

Place them right sides together and sew 1/4″ on each side of the diagonal lines.

Nota bene: Pin far away from any of the diagonal lines.

Now you have a piece with four seams forming an X.

Next cut the ‘Plus’ of your sewn piece. This means that you are cutting horizontally down the middle and vertically down the middle using the center of the X as a guide.

  • Line up your ruler with the edge of the fabric and the point in the middle where the two lines forming the X come together.
  • Cut vertically.

Do NOT move your fabric.

  • Reposition your ruler and then cut the piece horizontally.

After you cut the “PLUS” (the vertical and horizontal cuts), you will have four squares, each with a line drawn diagonally across the middle. Cut the squares in half diagonally. You can use the line as a guide. It is more important to line your ruler up corner to corner.

Triangle Technique HSTs
Triangle Technique HSTs

The result is 8-2.5″ half square triangles. The above are actually a thread or two larger than 2.5″, which leaves the perfect opportunity for trimming to make them an absolutely perfect 2.5″.

  • Trim your HSTs to an absolutely perfect 2.5″.

Now you have 8 beautiful HSTs. You will need to make one additional HST.

Of course, you can use whatever technique you like to make the half square triangles.

Layout and Assembly

Pieces cut and ready to sew
Pieces cut and ready to sew

Now that you have cut all of your pieces, lay them out on your sandpaper board, or put them up on your design surface. It is great to be able to see where all the pieces belong and adjust any pieces that need adjusting before you sew.

Sew Handle to Background

Template on Handle, ready to trace
Template on Handle, ready to trace
Traced & Adjusted
Traced & Adjusted

Because I decided to use the method described below, I made another handle template with NO seam allowance. I placed it on the handle I had cut from the striped fabric carefully so there was an even seam allowance on all sides. Then I traced around it with my thin black pen. I thought the template was a little wide at the end so I adjusted the line a bit to make the seam allowance larger.

Handle & Background Triangle Cut, Laid Out
Handle & Background Triangle Cut, Laid Out
Pieces Laid Out
Pieces Laid Out

My pieces look a little weird-not the right size, etc when I laid them out. Have no fear! They will improve.

Press seam allowance under
Press seam allowance under
Press with hot iron
Press with hot iron

I was using my stiletto to adjust the seam allowance, but it was impossible to hold the stiletto, the camera and the iron all at once. Press carefully, so as not to distort your pieces. This is where a mini iron comes in handy.

Watch out for corners
Watch out for corners

Pay attention to the corners. The layers of fabric will want to pooch in weird directions. Again, this is where a mini iron comes in handy. I used my regular iron and a stiletto.

Press seam allowance on handle under
Press seam allowance on handle under

Take your handle and press the the seam allowance under on both sides of the piece. Press so that the drawn line is on the inside of the handle and is covered by the piece once the handle is sewn.

Nota bene: the orange fabric is laying on my ironing board and was selected for good contrast so that the steps would show up well

Finger press patches in half
Finger press patches in half

Fold the handle in half with wrong sides together and finger press on the midpoint. Unfold.

Fold your large triangle in half with right sides together and finger press. Unfold and layout.

Nesting handle & background
Nesting handle & background

Nest the handle into the triangle with the right sides up using your finger pressed marks.

Line up the bottom edges of the handle with the hypotenuse of the background triangle. If the handle ends are a little over, it will be fine. You can trim them later.

Eyeball your piece to make sure everything looks good and even.

Pin the handle to the background down the center of the handle. Remove the pins as you sew. Try not to sew over them.

  • Using a lot of pins will help keep the handle in place as you sew
Sew carefully
Sew carefully

Sew slowly and carefully along the drawn line around the curve. I chose a matching thread, an applique’ foot and a topstitch/sharp needle.

You will either need to hand applique’ the other side down or using a machine stitch that suits you.

Sew both sides down with a straight stitch.

Optional: You can satin stitch (see the Machine Applique’ tutorial) or blanket stitch or use some other decorative stitch to machine sew the handle to the background triangle piece. If you use one of these stitches, you may need some tearaway stabilizer

Optional 2: you can hand applique’ the handle to the background triangle.

Handle sewn to background with straight seam
Handle sewn to background with straight seam

Once the handle is sewn you are ready to move to sew the woven part of the basket.

Basket Sewing Layout
Basket Sewing Layout

Sew Basket Together

The block can be broken down into two pieces: the top half with the handle and the bottom half with the basket.

The parts are labeled as follows:

  • HSTs: 1-9
  • Single triangles A-G
  • Square: 10
  • Background pieces: B1-B3

Get ready to Chunk it, Baby! This is where numbered pins would come in handy.

First 2 patches sewn!
First 2 patches sewn!

Sew A to HST/1. Press towards Triangle A.

Sew B to the A-HST/1 combo. Press.

Start sewing basket together
Start sewing basket together

The two colored HSTs are supposed to give the illusion of a woven basket.

Trim off dog ears
Trim off dog ears

Trim off dog ears from the A,B-HST/1 combo.

Sew Basket parts together
Sew Basket parts together

Sew HST/2 to HST/5. Press towards HST/5.

Using the diagram above to confirm placement, sew your A, B-HST/1 combo to your HST/2-HST/5 combo. Press towards the red.

Sew basket parts together
Sew basket parts together

Sew HST/8 to Square 10. Press towards the Square 10.

Sew HST/6 to HST/9. Press towards the red part of the HST.

Sew 2 sets of woven basket parts together
Sew 2 sets of woven basket parts together
Sew basket parts together
Sew basket parts together

Using the diagram above to confirm placement, sew your HST/6-HST/9 combo to your HST/8-Square/10 combo. Press towards the HST/6-HST/9 combo.

Sew Triangle to HSTs
Sew Triangle to HSTs

Using the diagram above to confirm placement, sew C to HST/3. Press towards the red.

Sew triangle D to C-HST/3 combo
Sew triangle D to C-HST/3 combo

Using the diagram above to confirm placement, sew D to your C-HST/3 combo. Press towards D.

Trim your dog ears
Trim your dog ears

Trim your dog ears.

Sew HST/4 to HST/7. Press towards HST/7, making sure your seams will nest with the seams you have already pressed.

Sew parts of the basket together
Sew parts of the basket together

Sew HST/4-HST/7 together and then sew the HST/4-HST/7 combo to E. Press towards E.

Four sections of the Basket
Four sections of the Basket

Using the diagram above for placement, sew your HST/4-HST/7-E combo to your C-D-HST/3 combo. Press.

Trim dog ears.

Sew 2 Sections together
Sew 2 Sections together

Sew your A,B-HST/1-HST/2 segment to the HST/6-HST/9 segment.

Trim Your Dog Ears
Trim Your Dog Ears

Trim your dog ears!

Sew last two segments
Sew last two segments

Sew the last two segments of the basket part together. You may have to re-press some seams.

I didn’t move the borders the whole time I worked on the quilt See how much the basket part shrank? That is seam allowances for you! The more seams the more the piece shrinks!

Trim the dog ears
Trim the dog ears

Trim the dog ears, if you haven’t already.

Sew 2 halves together
Sew 2 halves together

Now you have two halves of the basket. Sew the woven part to the handle part by placing the woven part on top of the handle part, lining them up and then sewing carefully. You can fold the two sections in half, bisecting the handle, to match them up if you think that you need to trim the handle portion later.

Ready to sew last borders
Ready to sew last borders

Now you are ready to sew on the borders.

Sew triangle to border
Sew triangle to border
Sew next triangle to border
Sew next triangle to border

Sew the B2-G background section by placing the red triangle (G) face down on top of background piece B2 and sew the short end of the background to the triangle, as shown in the picture.

Sew on background B2/Triangle-G
Sew on background B2/Triangle-G

Take the basket piece that you sewed together above and place the B2-G background section on top of the basket section. Line up the red triangle’s seam from the B2-G background section with the HST/8-Square 10 section. You want the seams to match, so pin. Press towards background piece B2.

Only one more border to go.

Take the basket piece that you sewed together above and place the B1-F background section on top of the basket section. Line up the red triangle’s seam from the B1-F background section with the HST/9-Square 10 section. You want the seams to match, so pin. Press towards background piece B1.

Sew on Final Triangle
Sew on Final Triangle

Now you are ready to sew the last piece.

Trim dog ears
Trim dog ears

First, trim the dog ears.

Basket almost complete
Basket almost complete

Your basket is almost complete.

Line up triangle with borders
Line up triangle with borders

Complete your basket half by sewing background piece B3 to the basket. You have already snipped off the corners using a Judy Martin Point Trimmer.  Just line up the triangle piece with the borders already sewn to the block. Press towards the background piece B3.

Your half is complete.

Take the top half of the basket, the piece with the handle, and carefully sew it to the basket half.

Completed Basket Block
Completed Basket Block

Your block is complete! Hooray.

ColorPlay Fun and Inspiration

Alden Lane Window Frames
Alden Lane Window Frames

I found another good photo for this project in the Alden Lane photos. To my eye, there are limited colors. To the tool’s way of thinking there were many.

Colorplay-windows
Colorplay-windows

The Palette Builder chose the colors above. There are more warm colors than the tool usually chooses, but I think ‘choose’ is the wrong term. I like the two greens – Kona Peapod and Kona Cactus. If nothing else, I am getting a nice introduction to the Kona solids.

Colorplay-windows 2
Colorplay-windows 2

Of course, I decided to have my fun and play around with what other palettes I could find using this picture. I definitely had to get that dark blue from the fountain into the palette.

Colorplay-windows 3
Colorplay-windows 3

Finally, I moved the circles down to the flowers towards the bottom to see what changes I could make. I was surprised at how much darker the palette became.

Quilt Class: Flower Basket pt.1

The Flower Basket block is the next block in our Sampler Quilt Class. This is a three part tutorial, so be sure to come back for the next parts.

Flower Basket
Flower Basket

These directions are for machine sewing your Flower Basket and include a little applique’, which can be done by machine or hand.

Supply List

  • Flower Basket Directions & Templates
  • paper scissors
  • mechanical pencil
  • thin Pigma pen (or similar)
  • template plastic
  • glue stick
  • 2 (or more) foreground fabrics
  • 12.5″ x 12.5″ piece of background fabric, which you will cut in half
  • FQ of same background fabric
  • Rotary ruler, including a long one, such as Creative Grids 4.5″x 18.5″
  • Rotary cutter
  • Fabric scissors
  • thread
  • pins
  • Stiletto
  • Design surface or sandpaper board
  • sewing machine

Optional

Important information:

  • Block is 12.5″ unfinished, 12″ finished
  • These directions use a quarter inch seam allowance. Check your seam allowance before you begin. If you don’t know how to do that, there are resources available, including one from Connecting Threads and from Craftsy. Search the web for others.
  • You will be directed to use the Triangle Technique. Make sure you have the chart as well as the instructions handy.
  • Respect the bias.

Templates

You really only a need a template for the basket handle. If you are using templates for all of your pieces, then prepare all the templates for pieces in the patterns as directed below.

Prepare pattern for your basket handle template by printing two copies of the pattern. I prefer to do this first so when I get into the throes of sewing I don’t have to stop and fiddle around with templates.

You will eventually place one copy of the pattern in your binder, but keep it handy so you can use it as reference.

Nota bene: You probably know how to make templates. However, I am including a quick refresher.

  • Rough cut* the handle pattern out of the second printout.
Rough Cut Pattern
Rough Cut Pattern
    • Glue the paper pattern (with seam allowances) using the glue stick to the template plastic.
It's ok to use scraps of template plastic
It’s ok to use scraps of template plastic

It is okay to use scraps of template plastic. Put a piece of tape on seam lines to keep the joins stiff.

Fine cut templates
Fine cut templates
  • Fine cut** the paper pattern and template plastic you have adhered so you have an accurate template, cutting off any seam allowance that may have printed.

DSCN0125smIf you plan to machine sew the handle, prepare another basket handle template, in the same manner, without seam allowance.

Fabric

Gather your fabric and press it all. Rough cut some pieces and press them with Mary Ellen’s Best Press to help deal with the bias. Treat the large background triangle and the basket handle in the same manner.

Cutting

Flower Basket
Flower Basket

Basket Handle
In my example basket, above (same as at the beginning of the post), this fabric is the medium blue.

Lay out template piece
Lay out template piece

Place fabric large enough for your basket handle wrong side up on your table or cutting mat.

Place template face down on fabric
Place template face down on fabric

Place your handle template right side down on the wrong side of the fabric.

Trace around the template carefully with your Pigma pen. Trace carefully without pulling or tugging at the fabric. You will be dealing with some bias on the curves. You will need to carefully move your hand along the template to keep it in place while you trace. Use the Pigma pen with a light touch.

Cut out handle
Cut out handle

Using your fabric scissors, cut around the traced image, cutting the drawn line off. If you are using a template with no seam allowance, leave approximately a quarter inch seam allowance on all sides.

Set the handle aside.

Background:
In my example, above, this fabric is the blue Michael Miller Ta Dot with white dots.

Measure background
Measure background

Measure the template for the large triangle of background fabric. It should be 10″ on each of the outside edges WITH seam allowance. Cut a square 10.5″ x 10.5″. You can trim it later. Better safe than sorry. Press the square with Mary Ellen’s Best Press.

Cut square on diagonal
Cut square on diagonal

Cut the square in half along the diagonal.

Cut the following additional pieces according to the measurements given:

    • 2 patches: 2.5″x8.5″
Nip off Bunny Ears
Nip off Bunny Ears
  • 1 patch: square 4 7/8″x 4 7/8″. Cut in half. Nip off the bunny ears with the Judy Martin Point Trimmer
  • 1 square: 5″ x 5″. Cut in half on the diagonal and set your second triangle aside
Cut some pieces from extra background triangle
Cut some pieces from extra background triangle

You can cut some of the background pieces out of the leftover triangles.

Foreground fabric:

The foreground fabric is used for the basket. You will need at least two fabrics for this part. In my example I am using a scarlet red and a medium blue. See picture above for placement of foreground fabrics.

    • 1 square: 2.5″ square
    • For the HSTs, you will need 2 squares from different fabrics, according to the HST Size Chart, 6.25″ x 6.25″.
      • Nota bene: The above Triangle Technique only yields 8 HSTs. You can make another set using the Triangle Technique directions and have some extras, or you can cut the triangles themselves
    • 1 square 2.5″ x 2.5″
Cut triangles
Cut triangles
Cut squares in half
Cut squares in half
  • Cut 4 squares 2 7/8 in. by 2 7/8 in. the second background fabric (red in my project). Cut in half. These are the base and top line of your flower basket.
Cut Pieces
Cut Pieces

You should now have all of your pieces cut. Look for the next part of the tutorial on sewing the block together. It will be available tomorrow.

Terminology:

* Rough cut means that you cut around the outside line and a little away from it, leaving some extra paper. This helps to position the template properly and eventually cut it accurately.

** Fine cut means that you cut the template out very exactly and carefully getting rid of any extra paper and template material used when you rough cut. This is the shape you will use to cut your fabric so prepare this step with care.

Quilt Class: Dresden Plate

Dresden Plate
Dresden Plate

The next block is the Dresden Plate, which we are making using templates. As you have probably guessed, there are a large number of methods of making blocks. If you would like to see a wide variety of Dresden Plates, you can do a Flickr search to see what others are doing.

Supply list:

  • pen
  • heat resistant template plastic
  • Glue stick
  • paper scissors
  • Pilot SCUF black thin point pen or Pigma Micron or Sewline pencil
  • magazine subscription postcard or small piece of scrap card stock
  • pins
  • 12.5″x 12.5″ or larger square rotary cutting ruler (I like Creative Grids)
  • fabric
  • Mary Ellen’s Best Press (or similar)
  • stiletto or similar (skewer might work)
  • sharp fabric scissors
  • thread for piecing
  • sewing machine
  • basic sewing kit
Auditioning Fabric
Auditioning Fabric

1. Select your petal fabrics. You can use 2 or many. You want to be able to see the work you have put into this block. Above are all of my options. I didn’t end up using all of them.

2. Print 3 copies of Dresden Plate Templates pattern. Two you will cut out and one you will keep for future reference.

Rough cut templates out of pattern sheet
Rough cut templates out of pattern sheet

3. From one pattern sheet rough cut around the petal and the circle including the seam allowance.

4. From one pattern sheet rough cut around the circle template and the petal template excluding the seam allowance. On the petal, cut off the thick black line. For the circle, leave the thick black line on the template.

Optional: Write ‘Dresden Plate” on each piece (or some way of identifying why you made these templates for later). Make a notation on the circle with no seam allowance so you don’t it mixed up with the other circle.

Glue paper patterns to template plastic
Glue paper patterns to template plastic

5. Glue circle and petal templates to template plastic

Templates Cut Out
Templates Cut Out

6. Carefully cut templates out of template plastic just outside of thin outside line.

Extend Lines
Extend Lines

7. Extend the straight line into the seam allowance with a ruler and a very sharp pencil or pen.

8. Right where the curve starts to move away from the straight line of the template, draw a line between those two points.

Poke Corners
Poke Corners

9. At the intersection, poke the corner of the petals to mark sewing start and stop points. I used a pin and then enlarged the holes with a seam ripper.

Cut your fabric into rectangles larger than your petal templates.

Optional: Spray rectangles of petal fabric with Mary Ellen’s Best Press to control the bias.

Trace Around Petal Templates
Trace Around Petal Templates

10. Place fabric wrong side UP on your table or cutting mat. Trace around the petal template, which is face down on the wrong side of the fabric. In order to keep that template still, hold the template tight down on the fabric with your fingers near where your pencil or pen is moving around the template.

Fabrics Ready to Trace
Fabrics Ready to Trace

11. Use at least 2 different fabrics to trace 16 petals. You can use many more. If you use two, alternate them. You want to be able to see the work you have put into this block, so select fabrics with contrast.

Trace Circle on Fabric for Center
Trace Circle on Fabric for Center
Cut out Center Circle
Cut out Center Circle

12. Trace a circle using the template with the seam allowance. Cut out the fabric circle with a generous seam allowance (more than 1/4″).

13. Cut fabrics using very sharp fabric scissors OR cut straight lines with rotary cutter and curved seams with fabric scissors.

Mark the holes you cut near the curves.

Petals on Dots
Petals on Dots
Petals on Flowers
Petals on Flowers

14. Choose your background fabric by laying the petals on the possible background fabrics, approximating the shape of the Dresden plate.

15. Cut a larger block, because the sewing of the block may make it shrink up. Cut a 13.5″x13.5″ background piece. Your Dresden Plate will be appliqued to this piece. Make sure it is square. You will trim the background piece once your block has been completed. Set this aside for now.

16. Line up two petals, right sides together.

17. Pin pieces together by lining up the holes you made when you traced around the template.

Sew from Point to Point
Sew from Point to Point

18. Sew from point to point, back stitching at each end. DO NOT sew into the seam allowance.

19. Press seams open.

Group of 4
Group of 4
4 Groups of 4
4 Groups of 4

20. Sew petals together in groups of 2, then sew the groups of twos to each other to make groups of 4, etc.

21. Sew between points, back stitching at each end. DO NOT sew into the seam allowance.

Completed Plate
Completed Plate

22. Sew all petals to each other, back stitching at each end, making a ring.

23. Press all seams open.

24. Trim threads.

25. Lay petal ring face down on your ironing board.

Plate face down
Plate face down

26. Lay the petal template without the seam allowance (which must be made from heat resistant template plastic or cardboard. Don’t use something that will melt) on the back face up.

Press Curve
Press Curve

You probably won’t be able to get the seam allowances flat, but press enough so the fabric knows where the curve is. It will help you when you are ready to stitch it down.

Press Curve
Press Curve
Finished Pressing all Curves
Finished Pressing all Curves

27. Press the curve into the outer edge of each petal. Use the stiletto to hold down the edge and iron right over the stiletto tip and the template. This is the miserable step, so intersperse eating some chocolate or some other sewing. Lay aside.

28. Take your cut piece of background fabric. Fold it in half and press lightly.

Fold Background in 1/2, then 1/4s
Fold Background in 1/2, then 1/4s

29. Fold your background fabric in half again (in quarters) and press lightly.

30. Open and you should be able to see the cross you have pressed into your background piece.

Center Plate on Background
Center Plate on Background

31. Take your plate of petals and line up 4 of the seam allowances with the pressed cross on your background fabric. This will center the plate on the background. Make sure you pay attention to the vertical as well as the horizontal.

32. Pin in place

33. Use thread that matches the plate or is neutral for hand applique’ or a blanket stitch to sew plate to background. You can also machine applique’ the plate to the background. We will cover that technique in another lesson, but there are many other tutorials available.

Move Pins as you Stitch
Move Pins as you Stitch

34. Pin curved edges of plate as you move around the plate to applique’.

35. Knot the thread sufficiently so the knot does not pop through the background.

36. Bring the thread up from the back through the fold of the plate (where you pressed the seam allowance).

37. Tug gently and put the needle into the background, just catching it, and pull the needle tight through the fold of the plate again.

38. Go around the entire plate in this manner, using the needle to tuck in the seam allowance so it has a smooth round shape.

Trace
Trace

39. Trace the circle template without the seam allowance onto the magazine subscription card.

Cut out Circle
Cut out Circle

40. Cut out the magazine subscription card circle, being sure to cut off the pencil/pen line.

41. Take the circle fabric you have cut and wrap it around the magazine subscription card circle.

Use a Running Stitch to Draw up the Circle
Use a Running Stitch to Draw up the Circle

42. Using any thread, take a running stitch in the seam allowance of the circle fabric and tighten it, keeping the magazine subscription card circle flat. If the magazine subscription card does not have enough body, you can also use the circle template without the seam allowance.

Pressed, Drawn up Circle
Pressed, Drawn up Circle

43. Press the drawn up circle well, so it is flat and a perfect circle. You will need to tug on the thread to draw the circle up as you press the first time. Once the fabric knows it needs be pressed you can pull the thread tight and make a knot.

Center Circle Ready to Applique'
Center Circle Ready to Applique’

44. Pin the circle to the center of the block, covering the raw edges of the center petals.

45. Applique’ using the same directions you used to applique’ the plate.

46. Trim block to 12.5″x12.5″. You might want to wait until on this step until you start assembling the quilt.

Dresden Plate Sample
Dresden Plate Sample

The green, turquoise, black and pink sample Dresden Plate was made for the class I taught in 2006/2007. I did this one a little differently. I machine stitched the plate to the background and the circle to the center.

As you can see, I also fussy cut fabrics to take advantage of larger spaces in the quilt block.

Dresden Plate detail
Dresden Plate detail

In the solid Dresden Plate, I placed like fabrics into groups of two for a slightly different look. The center circle was a good showcase for a bit of hand quilting.

Store Templates in a Ziploc Bag
Store Templates in a Ziploc Bag

 

I store my templates in a ziploc bag with a picture of the block or a label with the name and size of the block on it.

There is a link to this tutorial from the Artquiltmaker Info–>AQ Tutorials link under the header (see above).

Quilt Class: Curves

In this lesson, we will make a block called The Dove. It is a baby version of the Drunkard’s Path. I like to use the Drunkard’s Path block in this class, but is very fiddly and be frustrating for new quiltmakers. The Dove gives you practice in sewing curves and has larger pieces. If you make this block, the next logical curve practice piece would be a Drunkard’s Path block.

Curves-The Dove
Curves-The Dove

Supplies:

  • The Dove pattern
  • paper scissors
  • template plastic
  • glue stick
  • fabric (at least 2 different)
  • pen (I like the Pigma Micron & the Pilot Ultra Fine Point)
  • Fabric scissors
  • pins
  • Sewing machine
  • quarter inch foot or other marking system
  • thread
  • Iron and ironing surface

Use a quarter inch seam allowance.

Key to Pieces
Key to Pieces

This block, as well as the Drunkard’s Path block is made from two types of pieces: a concave ‘L’ and a pie shape. The pie shape forms the circle in the center and the concave ‘L’ can be considered the background. This design has a very strong focal point.

  1. Take the The Dove pattern and rough cut the paper templates.
  2. Use the glue stick to stick the paper templates to the template plastic. You won’t need heat resistant template plastic as we won’t be ironing over the templates. It is fine to use, though, if that is the only kind you have.
  3. Rough cut the templates you have glued to the plastic.
  4. Carefully cut out the template on the seam allowance line, cutting off the rough cut paper and plastic.
  5. Place your fabric wrong side up on a hard surface.
  6. Draw Around Templates
    Draw Around Templates

    Place the templates wrong side up on your chosen fabric. Nota bene: If you are using symmetrical templates, then it doesn’t matter whether they are right side or wrong side up, but it is good to get in the habit of doing it the right way in case you use non-symmetrical templates in a future project.

  7. Draw around the template with your marking implement of choice. You will need to hold your template firmly so it doesn’t shift. You can also rough cut out the fabric pieces if trying to cut precisely with a long length of fabric draped over the cutting table is too difficult.
  8. Rotary Cut 90 degree angles
    Rotary Cut 90 degree angles

    Cut the fabric out carefully using your fabric scissors, especially the curves. Cut the drawn line off the fabric. I used a rotary cutter for the 90 degree angles.

  9. Check to make sure that the fabric you just cut out is the same size and shape as your templates. You can lay the template over your fabric to check.
  10. Fold Pieces in Half
    Fold Pieces in Half

    Take a pie shape and a concave ‘L’ shape and fold them in half. Line up the edges carefully. The halfway point that you create will be used to make sure the pieces are sewn together evenly. You will want to make the marks so the patches nest. That means you fold the concave piece in half with right sides together and the pie shaped piece in half with the wrong sides together. Mark the halfway point with a pin or through finger pressing.

  11. Nestle the pieces right sides together.
  12. Pin in Middle
    Pin in Middle

    To do this, line up the middle mark where you have finger pressed to align the blocks accurately.

  13. Place a pin in the middle at the finger pressed center
  14. Pinned 3 times
    Pinned 3 times

    Line up the outside edges and place a pin close to the two outside edges. Because of the seam allowance, the piece will look misshapen.

  15. Fill in the area between the middle pin and each outside pin with pins. Ease the area between the outside and middle pins into smoothness with your fingers, lining up the edges of the fabric as you do so. Place as many pins as you need between the middle pin and the outside pin. Make sure the fabric is flat and there are no pooches. You may have to ease a bit, but do it very gently so as not to stretch the pieces. If you have to stretch and tug and pull, there is something wrong and you should check to see if your templates match your fabric pieces.
  16. Completed Pinning
    Completed Pinning

    Do the same with the second section between the middle and the other outside edge until you have used a lot of pins.

  17. Sew Pie to Concave Piece
    Sew Pie to Concave Piece

    Sew Pie to Concave piece, removing pins before you sew over them. You may want to use a stiletto or the point of a pin to keep the edges of the fabric lined up until you sew over the area where the pin was. I also use a seam ripper as a stiletto to keep the two pieces in place after I remove the pins.

  18. Dove Block in Process
    Dove Block in Process

    Press carefully.

  19. Repeat for all of the quarter blocks. Once you have sewn the four curves. you have a four patch.
  20. Dove Block in Process
    Dove Block in Process

    Sew 2 quarter blocks together to make a half, then sew the other 2 quarter blocks together so you have two halves.

  21. Press so that the center seams nest
  22. Pin the two halves together, paying careful attention to the center.
  23. Sew the two halves together.
  24. Press carefully.
Finished Dove Block
Finished Dove Block

GREAT work! You did it!

In a previous class, I did a tutorial on laying out a Drunkard’s Path. The fabrics and the block are different, but you can get an idea of the opportunities available to you with different fabrics by taking a look at the tutorial.

Quilt Class: Making Half Square Triangles

Some time ago, I saw an episode of Love of Quilting where Jo Morton was the guest. She was showing a technique for making half square triangles that blew my mind. Based on what I saw Marianne and Jo do on the show, I tried the technique and was pleased with the results.

I found this half square triangle (HST) technique to be one of the best I have seen. It is straightforward, there is a minimum of dealing with bias and the squares magically appear all at once.

There are a number of different tutorials for making HSTs (half square triangles/triangle squares) and I link to some of them below. My technique below makes 8 HSTs at a time and can be used for the Double Pinwheel we made the other day.

This is more of an informational tutorial than a tutorial related to certain blocks. HSTs are a component in many, many blocks designs, so learning to make HSTs using this method will come in handy

I started with 5″ squares, which is the size they used on the show. The 5″ squares make 8 HSTs. I thought it would be a great way to use charm packs. For other sizes, I have created the AQ HST Size Chart. You need this chart to find the sizes of the various pieces to make other block patterns.

Supply list:

  • AQ HST Size Chart
  • fabric
  • rotary cutter
  • rotary cutting ruler large enough to cut 4.5″ squares
  • rotary cutting mat
  • fabric (2 different)
  • Optional: Mary Ellen’s Best Press (or similar)
  • pins
  • sharp trimmers or scissors
  • thread for piecing
  • sewing machine
  • Iron
  • ironing surface
  • Sewline pencil or mechanical pencil
2 5
2 5
Draw an X
Draw an X
Put 2 squares together
Put 2 squares together

First, I cut two squares according to the AQ HST Size Chart.

Next, using a ruler and my Sewline pencil, I drew an X, corner to corner, on the lighter square.

Place the 2 squares right sides together and press them.  Pin far away from any of the lines.

Next, sew 1/4″ away from each line. I place the guide of my 1/4″ foot on the pencil line, which ensures my needle is 1/4″ away. Sew on both sides of all of the lines.

Measure 2.5" from the edge
Measure 2.5″ from the edge

After sewing, I measured 2.5″ from the side of the square and cut. Don’t move the two pieces. Position your ruler 2.5″ from bottom and make another cut.

Cut in a PLUS Configuration
Cut in a PLUS Configuration

Cut the square in a plus configuration 2.5″ – use the middle of the X as a guide. This is called the PLUS cut on the chart. You can draw pencil lines in a plus configuration and cut on those, if you want.

Cut in PLUS, then X
Cut in PLUS, then X

After you cut the PLUS you will have four squares, each with a line drawn diagonally across the middle. Cut the squares in half diagonally on the line. Use the line as a guide. It is more important to line your ruler up corner to corner.

HSTs from 5" squares
HSTs from 5″ squares

The result is 8 2″ half square triangles. The above are actually a thread or two larger than 2″, which leaves the perfect opportunity for trimming to make them an absolutely perfect 2″. If you trim, you get rid of the bunny ears as well.

Trim on all four sides
Trim on all four sides

Trim the squares to 2″. Line the 45 degree angle line on your ruler up with the diagonal seam line on your HST and trim on all four sides. Trim on all four sides. Don’t be tempted to trim just on two sides.

Beautiful HSTs
Beautiful HSTs

Now you have 8 beautiful HSTs. The bias edges shouldn’t be scary for you when you use the regular HST method, but this method makes HSTs much easier. This is a fabulous method when you need to make a lot of HSTs in a short amount of time. It is similar to a tutorial that p.s. i quilt posted, but times 4.

My DH came up with a chart showing the different sizes you can make with this technique. Look at this chart to find the correct size for your project.

AQ HST Size Chart

Links:

  1. Jo Morton website
  2. Jo Morton blog
  3. Jo Morton on Andover
  4. Wet Canvas tutorial
  5. Carole’s Quilting Adventures tutorial
  6. B’s Modern Quilting Fish Tutorial
  7. p.s. i quilt HST tutorial

Quilt Class: Flying Geese

Quilt Class: Sawtooth Star
Quilt Class: Sawtooth Star

Today we will be making the Sawtooth Star block. You will use your newly formed bias skills as well as cutting. You will also learn to make Flying Geese.

I love this block. I could make tons of them and never get bored. Like the Nine Patch, there are a lot of variations of this block to keep it interesting. I made about 1,000 of them for the Star Sampler quilt. Yes, I got tired of making them, but the end result is spectacular and I would make that quilt again.

In the large size (12 inches or larger), it is good to use large prints, like I did, especially with the center. Alternatively, make one of the variations (see Star Sampler for examples of the variations) with more pieces. For now, if you have large prints, use those for this block.

Flying Geese are a unit comprised of two different kinds of triangles. One of them is the same and the other is different from the triangles we used yesterday. The Flying Geese are also used as a component in many types of blocks as well as as a design component by themselves and in borders.

This is a thinking girl’s tutorial to making flying geese. Knowing how to make Flying Geese allows you to make, not only, Sawtooth Star blocks, but also Dutchman’s Puzzle blocks, borders and many other other parts needed for your quilts.

We will be learning the very basic way to make Flying Geese – no special rulers or tricks. There are many other ways to make flying geese and I use a specialty ruler now that I know the basic method. I’ll see about a tutorial using specialty rulers another time.

Supply list:

  • Cutting instructions for Sawtooth Star
  • fabric
  • rotary cutter
  • rotary cutting ruler large enough to cut 4.5″ squares
  • rotary cutting mat
  • fabric (2-3 different)
  • Optional: Mary Ellen’s Best Press (or similar)
  • pins
  • sharp trimmers or scissors
  • thread for piecing
  • sewing machine
  • Iron
  • ironing surface
  • Sewline pencil or mechanical pencil

First print the cutting instructions (pattern) for the Sawtooth Star block.

Cut your pieces according to the instructions.

Cut 2 Squares for each Flying Geese Element
Cut 2 Squares for each Flying Geese Element

The above is the fabric I will use for the ‘wings’.

Draw diagonal line from corner to corner
Draw diagonal line from corner to corner

Turn the squares wrong side up and draw a diagonal line from corner to corner. You will need to do this on all of the squares for your Flying Geese.

Cut background
Cut background

Cut the goose, fabric. Nota bene: above is a different fabric than I used in the final block. In the finished block I used an aqua with red dots.

Lay wing 1 on goose
Lay wing 1 on goose

Lay first square that will be a wing on the goose (blue) fabric. The diagonal line should be pointing to the center of the blue piece.

Pin the square to the larger patch. Make sure the pin is out of the way. You will be sewing on that drawn line, so you will need to pin far enough away so the pin doesn’t interfere with the operation of the machine.

Sew along line
Sew along line

Sew along line and trim threads. I use a foot that has an arrow on it. I can line that arrow up with the drawn line and sew away.

Trim
Trim

Trim 1/4″ away from the sewn line as shown above. You will cut through the wing and the goose.

Press the wing so the front of the wing fabric is showing. You must press the wing into its final position before you sew the other background on to your block.

Lay 2d square on goose.
Lay 2d square on goose.

Place the second wing on the other side of the background fabric. Again, the diagonal line will be pointed towards the center of the larger patch.

Trim 2d sewn wing
Trim 2d sewn wing
Sew and trim second wing
Sew and trim second wing

Sew and trim as above. Sew so that you cross the previous sewing line.

Press back 2d wing
Press back 2d wing

Press back the 2d wing and, voila’, you have a Flying Geese element.

Now make 3 more and cut your squares for the rest of the block.

You can also make these with various rulers. I often use the Deb Tucker Wing Clipper ruler and also have the various sizes of the Quilt in a Day Flying Geese ruler. I teach this basic method so you know how to do it and don’t have to purchase a specialty ruler. If you plan to make many Flying Geese, I suggest you buy either of the rulers listed above.

You need four of these to make a Sawtooth Star or eight of them to make a Dutchman’s Puzzle.

Bonus pattern: Dutchman’s Puzzle

I found an interesting border on Instagram using Flying Geese.

Quilt Class: Triangles

Now it is time for triangles. Triangles are not hard but you do have to pay attention to the bias. Understanding how to sew triangles expands your repertoire of designs by leaps and bounds.

Double Pinwheel
Double Pinwheel

You will make a 12 inch finished Double Pinwheel block. This block is also a 2×2 grid, just like the Double Four Patch. The pinwheels make up one square in each row of the two by two grid. Plain blocks make up the other squares.

Supply list:

  • fabric
  • rotary cutter
  • rotary cutting ruler
  • rotary cutting mat
  • fabric (2-3 different)
  • Mary Ellen’s Best Press (or similar) is very helpful with the bias
  • pins
  • sharp scissors
  • thread for piecing
  • sewing machine
  • Iron
  • ironing surface
  • Optional: numbered pins

Steps:

Double Pinwheel - Another View
Double Pinwheel – Another View

1. Cut:

  • 4 squares 4in. x 4in. for the blades of the pinwheel AKA the triangles. Mine are red in the above photos
  • 4 squares 4in. x 4in. from the background fabric. My background fabric is aqua in the above photo. This size will allow you to have enough extra fabric to trim the half square triangles before you sew them into the pinwheel. I like trimming
  • 2 -6.5in. squares from the background fabric for the plain background squares.

2. Cut all of the 4in. squares in half on the diagonal.

Layout your patches
Layout your patches

3. Lay out all of your patches on your design surface so you can see how the block will look.

The cut patches look like they won’t fit.  That is because of the seam allowances. It will all work out in the end. I promise.

4. Put one background triangle and one pinwheel triangle right sides together matching the hypotenuse (longest side) of the triangle.

4A. Spray the two fabric patches with Mary Ellen’s Best Press. Handle the triangles carefully by not yanking on them.

Gently put triangles under presser foot
Gently put triangles under presser foot

5. Sew one background triangle and one pinwheel triangle together along the hypotenuse of the triangle. I sew them with the background patch on top.

Use your hands to guide not yank
Use your hands to guide not yank

Sew all patches with the same color fabric on top. It will help you keep them organized.

My fingers are just keeping the hypotenuse up against my seam guide. The feed dogs are moving the fabric.

Chain piecing, baby!
Chain piecing, baby!

Sew one triangle after the other without clipping the thread between them. This is chain piecing. I use chain piecing to piece all of the triangles. I try and prevent them from falling off the back of my table so the falling triangles don’t yank on the ones still under the presser foot.

6. Sew all triangles needed to make pinwheels. Take them out of the machine and clip the threads between.

7. Take all of your sewn triangles to your pressing surface. First, I set the seam like Fons & Porter suggest and then open the seam and carefully press the seam towards the pinwheel fabric (red dot in my case).

8. Take the pieces to your cutting mat. Line up the diagonal line on your ruler (hopefully you are using a square ruler with a diagonal line) with the diagonal line you have sewed and trim your new half square triangle (HST) block to 3.5in.

  • You will need to make this cut twice for each patch as you cut two sides. Trim the top and the right side first. Then, turn the block 180 degrees and then trim the other two sides, which are, once again, the top and the right side.

9. Arrange your sewn HSTs on your design wall to you can be sure that they are arranged in a pinwheel block.

10. Make a note to yourself (use a pin, eyeball it, pinch it) which sides you are going to sew together. Nota bene: This is where numbered pins come in handy, if you decided to buy them.

Sew 2 HSTs together
Sew 2 HSTs together

11. Take 2 half square triangles and place them right sides together underneath your machine’s presser foot.

Nested HSTs
Nested HSTs
  • The seam allowances on the diagonal should be nested together. This will work if you have pressed all of your HSTs towards the pinwheel fabric. In the above photo you can see how the diagonal seams are lined up when I lift the corner of the fabric to show you. (Professional stunt quiltmaker! Please do not try this at home with your machine running!!!)

12. Making sure you are sewing them in the right orientation, sew two half square triangles together.

13. Press these half pinwheels towards the background.

  • You should have 2 pieces of 2 half square triangles ready to sew into a pinwheel.
Important Matching Spot
Important Matching Spot

14. Nest the 2 half pieces together. In the above photo I have put the pin in just to show you about where you should sew. Sew along the middle of the pinwheel

  • When you sew try not to cut off the point of the pinwheel center. You will see a V made by the seams you have sewn previously. Make sure you err towards the seam allowance (on your right looking at the needle of the sewing machine) and don’t cut off that V. Ideally, you want to sew one thread towards the seam allowance on top of that V.
V
V
  • You can just sew over the middle (.5in. on either side of the middle point) to make sure your points match, then you can go over the whole seam once you decide if you like the way the center looks. The ripping out is easier if you only have an inch to do.
Middle Sewn to Check Points
Middle Sewn to Check Points

When you open the block (with just the middle sewn) you can tell whether or not the center point will match.

A NOTE ABOUT POINT MATCHING: It is really important that you know your tolerance level for points not matching. My points don’t always match and either I leave them or rip them out. If my points are 1/4inch apart, I usually rip them out. If they are 1/16th of inch from one another, I will probably leave them. It is important to know:

  • what you are trying to achieve (practice block or show quilt)
  • if you are going to think about that seam not matching late into the night and it is going to prevent you from sleeping.
  • deadlines
  • whether the quilt is a gift to a prize winning quiltmaker or a baby who will drool all over it.
  • How busy the fabrics are (can you actually see the seams matching?)

Be kind to yourself when you think about whether to agonize over a seam not matching. Have fun, there is always more fabric and don’t make yourself crazy.

15. Sew the halves together, along the whole side, for both pinwheels. If you have sewn along the middle for an inch, make sure you stay on that line when you sew the whole side together.

Pressing Perfection
Pressing Perfection
  • See that nice little square that the pinwheel makes in the center? That means you did it right!

16. Press the pinwheels patches in the same direction as the other triangles. It will look like the seam allowances are spinning. It will also make less bulk in the center of the block.

17. Sew the large 6.5inch background square to each of your pinwheels. Pay attention to which side of the pinwheels they are sewn.

18. Press towards the 6.5inch square/background.

19. Nest the two pieces (which are made up of a pinwheel and a background patch).

20. Sew over the middle  starting from about .5inch on either side of the middle to make sure your seams match and you have not cut off points.

21. Sew the 2 pieces together starting on one side, sewing over the middle where you have already sewn and continuing to the end of the block.

View of Pressing
View of Pressing

22. Press whichever way the seam seems to want to go. I like to press each half of the seam towards the background. It makes for kind of an ugly pressing job, but I am not going to quilt over that center anyway, so, for me, it doesn’t matter. Pressing this seam open also works.

  • You could trim the seam in the middle, but I don’t do that. Jo Morton talks about doing that and you might want to check out her website and YouTube videos.

    3 Sampler Blocks
    3 Sampler Blocks

Look how nice the 3 blocks look together!

Creative Spark: Chapter 4

The fourth chapter in The Creative Spark is called The Crazies. Many writers of creative inspiration write about the negative voices in our heads: the judges, the critics, naysayers, all the people who ever told you you couldn’t. Bloomston calls them The Crazies.

I am not surprised that Bloomston brings them up. They are as much a part of the creative process as paper and fabric. They are in our heads and we all hear them whether we acknowledge them or not. “The Crazies are programmed to trip you up” (pg.21).

I hear them. They often tell me I am not good enough, need to do better, need to do more, need to spend more time, etc. It isn’t always possible, but when they tell me I need to do better, I try to listen by work on improving my skills. I also try not to get depressed. Examples of things I do are:

  • Ripping out pillowcase cuffs when I sewed them on upside down
  • Matching seams better
  • Evening out topstitching
  • etc

Using what they say often involves a lot of ripping. From my vantage point, my work is better when I try harder to do better.

Still, I don’t always like hearing what the critics have to say. They are never nice about my work and it isn’t always possible to be Zen about their words.

I have never wanted to be a full-time artist; I have always wanted to make what I want to make when I want to make it. This attitude gets me off the hook for most of the comments about being irresponsible and dooming myself to a life of “poverty,  lack and struggle ” (pg.21). Still this work, especially since fabric and thread are so firmly  rooted in the female realm, is not valued and that is painful to me. Even not being a full-time artist, I feel I have to explain or justify the time I spend on my work and what I make.

Bloomston has great strategies for banishing the Crazies. Chief among them is writing them down and enclosing the voices somewhere.

Being organized is another one. “Life generally tampers with creativity because being a grownup requires a great deal of organization and management” (pg.22). Being a grownup doesn’t mean you have to give up your creativity or the art you make. It simply means you have choices with regard to your art. Don’t  let The Crazies become the buzzkill, the axman or the murderer of your dreams of art (pg.22), use their criticism to spur you on.

Bloomston also has great techniques for dealing with, if you can’t banish The Crazies: Play, Notice, box Them Up, Show Them the Door (pg.23).

And when you are being overwhelmed with the magnitude of the criticism, turn to your friends, your critique group, your sewing circle, for support.

If you work regularly you will succeed.

Quilt Class: More Squares

Double Four Patch
Double Four Patch

This is a bonus block. I would like you to make it and use your fabrics to practice the techniques you learned in making your Nine Patch block. While this block is firmly rooted in square patches, there are a lot more seams to match, but not so many that you can’t do it. You can make this block or not. Remember Practice Makes Perfect.

Use a quarter inch seam allowance

All the supplies you need were listed in the Nine Patch Tutorial

You will also need these Double 4 patch Cutting Instructions

Use the same group of fabrics you used for the Nine Patch so you can use this block in the same quilt, if you choose.

Some tips:

This block has a different grid than the 9 patch. It has a 2×2 grid. That means that there are, essentially two patch across and two patches down. In this case you make one of the patches up from a Four Patch, so you sew each 4 patch, to a two plain square and then sew the halves together.

You can do it.

Book Review: Syllabus

It isn’t my intention to have very frequent book reviews in this Friday space. I think, however, that this book review feeds directly into my search for continuing creative inspiration. There are a lot of words in this review, but you will get more out of the book review, if you go buy the book (or find it at your local library). Definitely read and comment on my review, but go and get more out of it by looking at the illustrations and other materials in the book, too.

Syllabus: Notes from an Accidental ProfessorSyllabus: Notes from an Accidental Professor by Lynda Barry
My rating: 4 of 5 stars

I heard about this book when I listened to the Creative Mom podcast. This is not normally my kind of book, but I really enjoyed it. I was also very taken with the profound insights into the creative process and the thoughtfulness in nurturing creativity. The book is the product of a curriculum from one of Lynda Barry‘s classes and the content still has those qualities. I liked Barry’s idea of a curriculum: clear standards for the class that had more to do with production than perfect drawing. My favorite thing about this book is that it conveys the message that I was trying to convey with the Creative Prompt Project:

Just draw (or paint or sculpt or dance) and don’t worry if it looks imperfect or childish. Experience the act of making something with your hands/body.

The book looks like a composition notebook, one of those black and white marbled notebooks seen in massive stacks at stores during the back-to-school season. Barry uses very humble materials. They are not low quality, but humble — crayons (pg.87), Flair felt pen, etc. The title page and verso are not very obvious at all, which caught me, as a librarian, off guard. There is no table of contents and no index. The text just starts with the question “Is Creative Concentration Contagious?” There is a method to the seeming madness, however, and the book includes the story about the class Lynda Barry taught.

As I wrote the review, I wanted to go back and read all the pages over again. There is so much to see on the pages, I think it is possible to get something new no matter how many times you look at the pages. One part I cannot get out of my head is something I knew, but could never put into words. I was very glad when Lynda Barry wrote it down for me. “We know that athletes, musicians, and actors all have to practice, rehearse, repeat things until it gets into the body, the ‘muscle memory’, but for some reason, writers and visual artists think they have to be inspired before they make something not suspecting the PHYSICAL ACT of writing or drawing is what brings that inspiration about. Worrying about its worth and value before it exists can keep us immobilized forever. Any story we write or picture we made cannot demonstrate its worth until we write it or draw it. The answer can’t come to us any other way” (pg.163). I love the quote and think I will write it down and put it up where I can see it. It is so important to remember that inspiration is a must, but it is not everything. Practice. Practice. Practice.

There are a lot of slightly scary (I am not a horror person) and disturbing images in this book. A lot of the images are dark. This book is probably not appropriate for 5 year olds, but is perfectly fine for the tween to adult set. Also, it is a good reminder that not all drawings (or quilts or other artworks) are pretty in a conventional sense. This does not diminish other aspects of the piece (pg.29). The encouragement to just be creative regularly is the point.

The book discusses drawing a lot – not theoretical aspects, but the sheer magnitude of work the students are expected to create. Yes, you get better the more you practice, but you also have to have an “experience by hand” (pg.31), which has value. Barry writes “…what if the way kids draw — that kind of line that we call ‘childish’ — what if that is what a lines looks like when someone is having an experience by hand?” (pg.31). When I work, there is definitely something I gain by having fabric in my hands. It may be because my paid work is just stuff appearing on a screen while my quiltmaking is more of a whole body experience.

There is so much that translates directly to quiltmaking. I almost couldn’t take it all in. “I told them to color had in order to do it right. And go straight to use force — thinking I was showing them a short-cut — this took away the way of coloring they would have found on their own. By telling them just how to do it, I took the playing-around away, the gradual figuring out that bring something alive to the activity, makes it worthwhile, and is transferrable [sic] to other activities.” (pg.89) I love this passage. It makes me wonder if there is joy in using quilt patterns? Sure you have a quilt when you finish, but did the making of a design that someone else has already made bring joy to the quiltmaker? Perhaps this is the product vs. process question.

There are random and very interesting facts scattered throughout the book. “Every baby old enough to hold a crayon can already use and understand these 3 languages. Sometimes all at once.” (pg.14). She is talking about the relationship between pictures, music and dancing. This struck me as really amazing. She also talks about the relationship between hands, images and insights referring to using what is at hand to make art. One example is a child in bed interacting with his/her blanket as if it were alive. Another example is a of a homeless man acting out Romeo and Juliet with a cigarette butt and bottle cap as the main characters. (pg.15). This section is too insightful to include quotes. I would have had to type the entire section, which is why you should read this book. 😉

One good reminder (pg.19) is that even though we don’t like a piece of our artwork, it survives. This reminds me of finishing a quilt and being very glad to be done with it. Still, six months later, the quilt is one of my best. It is a good thing to remember that our work survives even if we don’t like it. Barry also states “Liking and not liking can make us blind to what’s there.” (pg.23). I make no secret of not liking brown and having a hard time appreciating Civil War reproduction fabrics. Some years ago, I forced myself to look more carefully at some of these types of quilts in order to appreciate something else about the quilt, such as the piecing and the design. While I have a hard time imagining such quilts in brights and dots, I can appreciate intricate and exact piecing.

The book is filled with tips, many of which dovetail with what I am trying to do with my blog. One states “I know if I can just keep them drawing without thinking about it too much, something quite original will appear…” (pg.21). I think it is very important to keep working, even if you make a lot of terrible work, because at some point, something great will happen that wouldn’t have happened if you hadn’t done so much mediocre or okay work. One tip is to use smaller spaces. Lynda has her students fold 8.5″x11″ sheets of paper into 16 squares and use those for their drawings. Friend Julie is making small square quilts as a weekly exercise. Is this something that would jolt my creativity? Your creativity?

Words in the book described as tips become profound when I think about them. One such group of words is something that I tried to espouse in the Creative Prompt Project. “Daily practice with images both written and drawn is rare once we have lost our baby teeth and begin to think of ourselves as good at some things and bad at other things. It’s not that this isn’t TRUE but the side effects are profound once we abandon a certain activity like drawing because we are bad at it. A certain state of mind (what McGilchrist might call ‘attention’) is also lost. A certain capacity of the mind is shuttered and for most people, it stays that way for life” (pg.115). This quote, idea hits close to home. I know I do it. It is easier to do things I am good at and avoid things I think I am bad at. I don’t do needle-turn applique’ because it is hard and I have to work at it. I want the time I spend to mean something more than ravelly edges on a piece of applique’. Still, what am I losing with this attitude?

One aspect of the ideas in the text that really struck me was about images. Lynda Barry writes “I was trying to understand how images travel between people, how they move through time, and if there was a way to use writing and picture making to figure out more about how images work. (pg.49) This idea has been rumbling around in my head, including the relationship to quiltmaking. We know that newspapers used to print patterns. We know that ladies would trade patterns. Now we have digital cameras and record quilt images that way. Still, we see images and they rumble around in our heads, morph and change before they become a quilt. Even when they become a quilt, changes are still possible.

The other thing about this book is the author encourages us to notice things. The composition book acts as a life note book. She encourages a small box to record things students did, saw, heard and then there is a space for a daily drawing. “what goes into your diary are things that you noticed when you became present — that is to say when the hamster wheel of thoughts and plans and worries stopped long enough for you to notice where you were and what was going on around you — little things…” (pg.61). This happens to me when I walk and am not listening to a book. This book makes me think I should just allow my mind to wander more often. What am I losing by not giving my mind that space?

Partway through the text, Barry writes “sometimes right before class I’ll see students rushing to finish the homework I gave them and I always feel sad. They’ll get nothing from the work without the state of mind that comes with it. It’s a thing Dan Chaon calls ‘Dreaming Awake’ – we can use writing and drawing to get to that state, but not by rushing” (pg.128). I think I get to this state when I am piecing a lot of the same types of pieces. It allows me to accomplish something in the quiltmaking world while my mind wanders off to other places to solve other problems. I don’t think we have enough of this type of time. While I like to have a basic plan in place when I start a quilt, often I just want to try something and that ends up as a quilt, like the Swoon did. I think there was an element of this type of working in the IRR as well. Lynda talks about this when she says “It’s a kind of picturing that is formed by our own activity, one line suggesting the next. We have a general direction but can’t see where we are until we let ourselves take a step, and then another, and then we move on to the third”(pg.136). There is an element of uncertainty when working this way, but also an element of excitement, because the maker does not know exactly where s/he is going.

Fixed places are a concept I cannot completely wrap my head around, but if what I think the author is talking about is true. I can identify at least one group of fixed places relevant to my life. Lynda B writes “Poets claim that we recapture for a moment the self that we were long ago when we enter some house or garden in which we used to live in our youth. But these are most hazardous pilgrimages, which end as often in disappointment as in success. It is in ourselves that we should rather seek to find those fixed places, contemporaneous with different years” (pg.181). I wonder how fixed places affect our lives. The point about failure and success is well taken. You can’t go back and we do look back on the past with rose colored glasses and forget the difficult parts.

Finally, Ms. Barry talks about journals. Journals, as you know, are near and dear to my heart. I have kept one for years and she gives voice to my thoughts on journals and writing in a journal when she says ‘the nature of notetaking by hand. Thinking of one’s compbook as a place. The practice of developing a place not a thing” (pg.194). For me, a journal is a place to think. It can be a mess. If I force yourself to make it beautiful I know it is less useful. I need a place to dump and my daily journal is that place.

Towards the end of this 200 page book, Barry tells a story “He said that during those years, as a child, he used to imagine that he was the son of the emperor of China, and the old, wise advisors of his father set a spell on him: he would have to experience all these terrible events so when he grew up and became the emperor himself, he would not make war. Since, I stopped thinking that art is decoration in life; for me, it is proof that art is essential to our surviving.” (pg.173). Using creativity to survive a terrible situation is so clever that I cannot think how this author thought of it except that he practiced and it was second nature.

I guess the thing about this book that I liked best was that it made me think in a different way. Barry’s book gives me a lot to think about. It made me wonder if I can to do more to develop my creativity? Practice more? Draw more? Dance more? More walking without headphones and an audiobook? Allow my mind to wander? There is a lot in what I have written in this review, but there is so much more. Go buy this book (shameless plug!!) and read it. Then read it again and again.

View all my reviews